Dyslexia, Irlen Syndrome and Alexia. (This has nothing to do with Amazon gadgets)

While this post focuses on writing blogs, website content, social media and emails rather than stories and books, much of the following could be adapted by authors and publishers of books.

As independent authors, our ability to write such is of paramount importance to our promotional and marketing strategy. Yet the way you write could be alienating those who are not quite as apt as you or me at reading.


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A couple of years ago, I had a wonderful comment from a person who suffered from dyslexia about a post.

Although his comments were primarily about the content and not the presentation of the post, he mentioned he found my post far easier to read than many, if not most.

Curiosity got the better of me.

Why I wondered, could he read and understand my posts, when he struggled to read so many others?

Over the next few days, he and I conversed, by email, about his reading on a personal AAEAAQAAAAAAAAxCAAAAJDdmZDE5N2IxLWUxZmUtNGMwNi04YzE3LWYyNGUxYjA3MDE1MQlevel and Dyslexia in general.

 

Before I carry on and explain the outcome of our conversations, I think as writers we should all know and understand what dyslexia and some of the most common reading difficulties are. So, I am including the following few paragraphs & bullet points, (which I cribbed from the internet), for clarity.

 

A formal definition of dyslexia used by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development states, “It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and / or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge. “

Unsurprisingly, the International Dyslexia Association defines it in simple terms. “Dyslexia is a language-based learning disability. Dyslexia refers to a cluster of symptoms, which result in people having difficulties with specific language skills, particularly reading. Students with dyslexia usually experience difficulties with other language skills such as spelling, writing, and pronouncing words.”


In contrast, Irlen Syndrome is a perceptual processing disorder, meaning that it relates specifically to how the brain processes the visual information it receives. It is not a language-based disorder and phonics-based instruction will not help someone with Irlen Syndrome improve in the same way it will help someone with dyslexia improve their reading skills.

At its core, Irlen Syndrome is a light sensitivity, where individuals are sensitive to a specific wavelength of light and this sensitivity is what causes the physical and visual symptoms that people with Irlen Syndrome experience. People with Irlen Syndrome have difficulty reading not because their brains have difficulty connecting the letters they see with the sounds those letters make, but because they see distortions on the printed page, or because the white background or glare hurts their eyes, gives them a headache, or makes them fall asleep when trying to read.

Unlike dyslexia, difficulties experienced because of Irlen Syndrome can reach well beyond just reading. People with Irlen Syndrome have difficulty processing all visual information, not just words on a printed page, so they often have trouble with depth perception, driving, sports performance, and other areas not generally connected with dyslexia.


Alexia is a form of dyslexia, but dyslexia is developmental, meaning that it does not happen from an occurrence such as a stroke or traumatic brain injury.

Alexia is an acquired reading disability because of an acquired event such as a stroke. It is most common for alexia to be accompanied by expressive aphasia (the ability to speak in sentences), and agraphia (the ability to write).

All alexia is not the same, however. You may have difficulty with the following:

Recognizing words ● Difficulty identifying and reading synonyms ● Difficulty with reading despite your ability to sound out pronunciation of words.

Although you can read words, it is too difficult to read for very long ● Blind spots blocking the end of a line or a long word ● Focusing on the left side of the paragraph or page ● Double vision when trying to read ● Reading some words but not others. Of course, this makes reading impossible.

A stroke survivor with alexia that can read larger words, but cannot read tiny words such as “it,” “to,” “and,” etc. ● Any combination of some of these traits.

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My conversations with, (I shall call him ‘Jay’ during this post), led me to take a close look at how I was presenting my blogs, what made them so different and, could I improve them further?

It turns out the style I chose… I was going to say developed, but that sounds arrogant. So, the style I was using at the time was to write in small(ish) chunks, using relatively short sentences and paragraphs, as I have so far in this post.

Unlike the following.

This differed to most blogs and posts on the interweb which were, (and still are), long blocks of continuous sentences and sub-sentences, forming large paragraphs with very little line spacing or breaks. This may be a ‘style’ welcomed by universities and those writing technical/medical/professional and some literary journals. I have seen many papers which follow this style. I have even read a few and I must agree it makes for extremely uncomfortable reading. To read such a document, one must concentrate fully and focus on each word of each line. Whenever the eye moves from its forced liner motion, even for a moment, is when the reader finds some difficulty in returning to the exact location they were at previously, often meaning one must, annoyingly, re-read sections already read. Like you have possibly just done when reading with this last long drivelling, over-worded paragraph I have written in just such a manner to illustrate my point that it makes for uncomfortable reading, even for those of us blessed with good eyesight and adequate skill. A point which I hope I have now made adequately clear with this paragraph which is representative of many blogs.

Writing in this form creates such a large block of words it becomes challenging to separate them into clear concise ‘bite-sized‘ and manageable ‘lots’ of information.

This is one of the areas of written presentation which was highlighted to me by Jay.

I already used a style of writing which broke long paragraphs into much smaller ones, whenever practicable, but I was not aware of the impact doing so made on the reader. From then on, I broke paragraphs down even further than I did ‘pre-‘Jay’

I was also made aware of unnecessarily long sentences, sentences with too many superfluous words.

This simply meant cutting out all those unnecessary words to make sentences read far more precisely and clearly.

OR

Eliminating irrelevant words.

You see, this is not fictional or creative literature as when writing a novel, or even a short story. This is describing and sharing thoughts, ideas, information and data. Another skill set entirely.

Authors often discover this when having to write a precise about their latest book, like the back-cover blurb, an agent’s query letter, a synopsis or copy text for a promotional activity.

We all know, or at least should, that mixing sentence lengths makes for a better reading experience. But so does spacing and breaking them up as I have done in most of this post.

Please do not get me wrong.

I am not solely writing or directing my words specifically to those with reading difficulties, but I am looking to be as inclusive as possible and not simply because I am attempting to be politically, or socially correct.

I do it because I want as many people as possible to read my words. That is why I write.

Looking at how one presents their posts on the screen does not take much effort. Neither does adjusting one’s style to make it clearer and easier to read… for everybody, including you and me.

To finish, look at this Git-Hub virtual reality page. It shows how we can best comprehend the way those suffering from dyslexia and associated reading difficulties may see the written word.

https://geon.github.io/programming/2016/03/03/dsxyliea

My lesson, following those conversations with ‘Jay’, is, 

“We can all learn from others, even those we may have previously considered had nothing to give us. After all, I never thought a dyslexic could teach an established author how to write clearer, even better.

How wrong I was.”

Thank you for reading another of my Ramblings. Please subscribe to this blog if you will.

I am open to all comments and try to reply to them all personally.

Keep happy, Paul


Oh, take a peek at my website, I have a ton of good stuff waiting there 

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Better Blogging. (keeping readers engaged and winning followers)

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In my last post about Blogging I covered Hooks, PAS & Call to Action.

In this post I will cover text layout, pagination and a few more things which lose readers if you do not get them right.

I know some of you have written books and are using Blogging to help promote and market them, while others only write Blogs. The common factor is that people from both camps, the experienced and amateur writer, frequently write blogs appallingly, some get it so wrong that you just cannot read them.

A well written and formed Blog is a discipline all of its own!

I shall try and explain, without getting too technical, where you could be going wrong and how to make your Blog more appealing.

But first let’s take a look at something simple, the Blog layout, or as it is called here on WordPress the ‘theme’.

In the publishing industry the ‘page layout’, includes text, titling, sub-headings, numeric, and images. Deciding on this ‘layout’ is an important factor in the success your Blog will have.

WordPress and other Blogging sites often have templates to assist with this.

Clearly the theme you choose has to suit the type of Blog you write. The various posts you produce must not only sit comfortably with the page format, but should be easy on the eye of the reader. This sounds obvious, but honestly so many Blogs are confusing or distracting to the eye.

Here are my suggestions for a clear, easily read Blog layout which will make it effortless to read and keep people engaged for much longer.

 

  • To start with a pure white background can be glaring and harsh on the eye, so choose a soft palate, pale or pastel shades work well.
  • Try to avoid black or very dark colours which necessitate reverse print. (e. white text on black background). Again this can cause eye strain and can be disquieting.
  • Blogging

Ok, you may have a fantasy or vampire Blog and want to portray a dark mood, but please try a mid-grey or maybe a lighter red. You can still create the ‘mood’ with good graphics and images.

  • Next choose a font for your headlines and sub-headings. Keep the same typestyle for both throughout your post, just alter the font size.

Then select a font for your main text.

Try and keep to just these two fonts, (The heading / Sub-heading and body text), use a third if you think it is really necessary but bear in mind that using more font styles will only make your post look messy and amateurish.

When using just these two font styles you will be able to play about with them in many ways; Bold, Italics, Underline, Strikethrough, block quotes, and font sizes (Point size).

This should give you a mass of flexibility whilst maintaining a smooth uniform and professional look to your post.

  • Consider also how your words will look on the page as a whole. Take a lead from the newspaper and magazine publishers. Break your Blog into two (or three) columns. This makes it far easier to read. I know this from my experience of working on high end glossy magazines such as the Conde Nast Vogue, Vanity Fair and others like Boat International and Robb Report.

While two columns mean your reader will have to scroll back to the top of each page to continue reading, this is an intuitive reaction and does not detract from their overall enjoyment. Whereas trying to read elongated lines of text from page edge to page edge is not such a natural act, it is more akin to standing near a large poster and having to twist your head to read it all.

  • Break your text up occasionally with a relevant picture, sketch or diagram. Images attract and hold attention and create curiosity by those ‘scanning’ the page. You are more likely to gain and hold people’s attention when you include images. But do make them relevant and, unless you have a pure pictorial Blog, do not over do it!

Once again take a lead from the professionals, look at both print and online magazines to get ideas that you can employ on your own site.

  • Unlike newspapers and glossy magazines online publications have the effect of ‘cramming’ the written word. This is why all publishers like writers to submit their manuscripts with ‘double –line spacing’.

A constant and consistent block of words on a computer, tablet or ‘phone screen is very difficult to read if not spaced and ‘broken up’ into bite sized pieces.

You will note that I have done precisely that within this post.

If this post was intended to be printed, say in a paperback book, then my paragraphs would be longer and not divided into these smaller clusters of a few sentences for each paragraph.

  • Another consideration for this is that many people do not have excellent eyesight, or suffer with varying degrees of dyslexia, whilst others may not read English, or whatever language you write in, as their first or primary language.

By breaking your paragraphs into small sections you are helping to be inclusive of these conditions or learning needs, which I think is a good thing.

  • If your post has an instructive, educational or coaching bent, as does this, then using ‘bullet points’ is a great way to determine each subject change within the string.

Otherwise employ the use of block quotations to highlight or firm-up your major opinions or facts.

  • Lastly consider the length of each post. You will not hold everyone’s attention for ever!

So if you do have a lot to say, or a large amount of information you wish to share, consider dividing your subject matter into two or more posts.

I do hope you find the above some use when considering writing your next Blog, especially when taken in conjunction with my previous post ‘Stop writing boring Blogs!

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I am constantly endeavouring to help my fellow writers in any way I can, so please feel to follow and share this blog with as many of your friends and contacts on any social media sites as you wish.

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If you would like to know more about me, my works, my books, in fact anything at all, my website is

http://paulznewpostbox.wix.com/paul-white-writer

Feel free to browse about at your leisure!